The remarkable elegance of these naturally evolved structures originates from bottom-up self-assembly processes. The seamless integration of top-down fabrication and bottom-up synthesis is the challenge for achieving intricate artificial systems. In this paper, technologies necessary for guided bottom-up assembly such as molecular manipulation, molecular binding, and the self assembling of molecules will be reviewed.
These nano-scale crystal structures, which until now have been difficult and time-consuming to produce using current technologies, could be used as basic components for advanced optics, data storage and bioengineering, said the research team. The results of the Duke experiments were published online in the journal Nature Communications. The traditional method for creating man-made crystals is described as "top-down" by Yellen, which means they are fashioned by lithography or molding techniques, and can't be easily created in three dimensions.
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Low-dimensional carbon nanostructuressuch as nanotubes and graphenesrepresent one of the most promising classes of materials, in view of their potential use in nanotechnology. However, their exploitation in applications is often hindered by difficulties in their synthesis and purification. Despite the huge efforts by the research community, the production of nanostructured carbon materials with controlled properties is still beyond reach.
In this keynote presentation, Satoshi Kawata of Osaka University, discusses top-down and bottom-up approaches to the fabrication of 3D complex nano-structures in a large scale. As a top-down method, laser-beam 3D drawing with two-photon photo-polymerization has made 3D micro-machines of plastic. Two-photon isomerization has been applied to data recording in multi-layer 3D rewritable optical data-storage, and two-photon photo-reduction to the fabrication of 3D metallic metamaterials.
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Nanotechnology " nanotech " is manipulation of matter on an atomicmolecularand supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology   referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiativewhich defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to nanometers.
What is nanofabrication? The terms nanofabrication and nanomanufacturing are often used interchangeably for making one- two- or three-dimensional nanostructures in various contexts medical, photonics, electronics, energy, etc. These terms cover a host of different materials, devices, products, and processes and are simply too broad to cover in detail in a short article. One possible approach to distinguish between the terms is by using the criterion of economic viability: the connotations of industrial scale and profitability associated with the word manufacturing imply that nanomanufacturing is an economic activity with industrial production facilities with more or less fully automated assembly lines.